The incidence of vascular diseases is steadily increasing because of an aging population. Vascular surgery is the only specialty that can offer all modalities of vascular therapy (endovascular, open, and conservative). It is therefore necessary to ensure implementation of all these modalities in a modern vascular surgical curricula. The creation of a vascular specialist curriculum is undoubtedly the best way to overcome further fragmentation of vascular provision and to prevent the increasingly financially-driven incentives that can mislead treatment. For obvious reasons this would be a major benefit for our patients and for our specialty.
Another reason for updating the vascular surgical curricula is the significant reduction of open aortic and peripheral vascular surgical training cases, such as abdominal aortic aneurysms and superficial femoral artery occlusions.1 Since the vast majority of these patients are now treated by endovascular means, the remaining vascular disease morphologies can technically be very demanding when requiring open vascular surgery procedures.
Nevertheless, the public and our patients quite understandably expect to be treated by well trained and competent vascular surgeons/specialists. As in all other professions, a proper assessment of all vascular competencies is therefore considered to be mandatory at the end of the training period for a vascular specialist. To this end, several proposals have been made to improve both the structure and different assessment tools including the Vascular Surgical Milestones Project,2 the Vascular Surgery In-Training Examinations (VSITE),3 the use of procedure-based assessments (PBA),4 or objective structured assessments of technical skills (OSATS).5 In addition, simulation workshops (using computer- or life-like synthetic models) play an increasing role in teaching vascular residents the ever-increasing number of different open and endovascular surgical techniques.6,7
Traditionally, the final board examination at the end of the vascular surgical training period consists of an oral assessment or a computer-based test. The obvious crucial question is whether a practical examination should be a added as a mandatory part of a vascular exit exam. This article gives an overview of the board examination of the European Board of Vascular Surgery (EBVS) at the UEMS (Union of European Medical Specialists), which adopted a technical skills assessment in 2006.
The European Vascular Surgical Examination
The UEMS was founded in 1958 as an official body of the European Union (EU). The UEMS has the remits to accredit medical meetings,8 to promote free professional movement of all doctors within Europe, and to ensure high quality of training and associated specialist standards via UEMS examinations.9,10 Currently, the UEMS represents the national medical societies of 37 member states. To date there are 42 UEMS Specialist Sections (separate and independent disciplines), UEMS Divisions (key areas within the independent disciplines, such as Interventional Radiology) and some so-called “Multidisciplinary Joint Committees” (such as Phlebology).
Since 2005, vascular surgery has been represented as an independent medical discipline within the UEMS.Politically, this was a tremendously important step that has helped many European countries to establish vascular surgery on a national level as a separate specialty. The most recent examples are Switzerland (since 2014) and Austria (since 2015).
European vascular surgical examinations have been offered since 1996. The Fellowship of the European Board in Vascular Surgery (FEBVS) is voluntary in most European countries, but in some countries, such as Switzerland and the Netherlands, the European exam has now replaced the national specialist exam.12 Other countries also are in the process of accepting this European standard as a national standard, including Romania, Austria, and Sweden.
The European exam consists of a written section and a combined oral and practical exam. Candidates must be in possession of a national specialist title for surgery or vascular surgery (in countries with a monospecialty). Applications from non-EU countries also are accepted.
Applications must be made in writing, giving details of open-operative and endovascular experience. A distinction is made between assisted operations, independently performed surgery with assistance, and actual independently performed surgical procedures without specialist tutorial assistance. All candidates admitted to the examination have to pass a one-day oral and practical examination, which includes questioning on theoretical background knowledge and its practical application. This takes place mostly in the context of specific clinical case studies as well as via practical examinations on pulsatile perfused lifelike models.
The following procedures are assessed: an infrarenal aortic anastomosis, a carotid endarterectomy, and a distal bypass anastomosis.6,13,14 In the endovascular part of the examination, the applicant’s ability to introduce a guide-wire into the renal artery is assessed.15 Unlike the case in many national tests, FEBVS candidates are also presented with a specialist English-language publication (usually from the European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery). This article is then discussed with two examiners, with respect to its quality as well as its methodological content and significance. Many examination candidates fear this hurdle the most, but in fact very few participants fail this part of the test.
The European exam is designed to be unbiased and fair, with two examiners at each test station who carry out their assessments independent of each other. During the course of the examination, each candidate is interviewed by approximately 10 assessors. The assessment is validated by way of an evaluation form. The assessing auditors’ communications skills are themselves judged by observers. In the event of communication difficulties, observers are subsequently consulted.
Despite the challenging test procedures, the number of participants in the European Specialist Exam for Vascular Surgery has steadily increased in recent years. For this reason, since 2012, two examination sessions per year have been offered, one during the Annual Meeting of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) and one at the European Vascular Course (EVC) in Maastricht. The failure rate each year fluctuates around 20%.
Benefits of being a Fellow of the European Board of Vascular Surgery (FEBVS)
There are a number of very good reasons to sit a European examination and acquire the title of Fellow of the European Board of Vascular Surgery (FEBVS). Some of them are:
Evidence of competency in job applications. Many managers know that the European exam is theoretically and practically challenging, and comprehensive. Confidence in candidates (specialists and senior physicians) who have passed the European test is therefore higher. That in turn increases the chances of getting the desired position especially when applying abroad!
Verification of open surgical and endovascular skills. Filling in the logbook16 helps to maintain a transparent open/endovascular portfolio. It is an extremely sophisticated tool to capture expertise and experience.
Commitment to the need for a European standard. The UEMS has set itself the goal of setting a European standard for medical specialists at the highest level. The European specialist exam projects this. All FEBVS support this goal via their application.
Commitment to academic knowledge-based vascular surgery. The European Vascular Surgery specialist exam covers theoretical background, knowledge of the main studies, basic academic skills, and the ability to comprehensively apply this knowledge to case studies from the entire vascular field. By obtaining this exam, all FEBVS confirm their commitment to an evidence-based approach to vascular surgery.
Commitment to competency-based vascular surgery. The European Vascular Surgery specialist exam covers a practical assessment on open vascular surgical and endovascular key competencies. By passing this part of the exam, all FEBVS give evidence that they are technically competent vascular surgeons.
Desire to belong to the best of the profession. The European specialist exam is certainly more demanding than many national board certifications. However, it offers an opportunity to belong to the European vascular surgical elite.
In conclusion, the European experience on board examinations including skills assessment shows pretty clearly that this sort of comprehensive examination is feasible. Moreover, the increasing number of applications indicates the growing attractiveness of the European certification and qualification as FEBVS. The long-term goal will be to make this examination mandatory for all EU countries – still a long way to go. By the way, since the status of FEBVS is also achievable by non-EU countries, Brexit will not prevent vascular surgeons from the United Kingdom to qualify as FEBVS in the future!
Dr. Eckstein is the Past President of the Board and Section of Vascular Surgery at the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) and Past President of the German Vascular Society (DGG), and an associate editor for Vascular Specialist.